penKid – Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury
Proenkephalin, Renal Dysfunction, and Prognosis in Patients With Acute Heart Failure: A GREAT Network Study.
Ng LL, Squire IB, Jones DJ, Cao TH, Chan DC, Sandhu JK, Quinn PA, Davies JE, Struck J, Hartmann O, Bergmann A, Mebazaa A, Gayat E, Arrigo M, Akiyama E, Sabti Z, Lohrmann J, Twerenbold R, Herrmann T, Schumacher C, Kozhuharov N, Mueller C, GREAT Network.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017. 69(1):56-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.038
Proenkephalin levels reflect the cardiorenal status in acute heart failure and are prognostic for worsening renal function and in-hospital mortality as well as mortality during follow-up
High Level of Fasting Plasma Proenkephalin-A Predicts Deterioration of Kidney Function and Incidence of CKD.
Schulz CA, Christensson A, Ericson U, Almgren P, Hindy G, Nilsson PM, Struck J, Bergmann A, Melander O, Orho-Melander M.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017. 28(1):291-303. https://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015101177
Plasma Proenkephalin level predicts incident CKD and helps to identify subjects in need of primary preventive regimens.
Diagnostic and short-term prognostic utility of plasma pro-enkephalin (pro-ENK) for acute kidney injury in patients admitted with sepsis in the emergency department.
Marino R, Struck J, Hartmann O, Maisel AS, Rehfeldt M, Magrini L, Melander O, Bergmann A, Di Somma S.
J Nephrol. 2015. 28(6):717-24. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-014-0163-z
Accurate and quick detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is hampered by the influence of systemic inflammation and other confounding factors and/or requires urine as sample matrix. In septic patients admitted to the emergency department, plasma pro-enkephalin was increased with the presence and severity of (AKI), and was associated with short-term mortality, but essentially not elevated when sepsis was not accompanied with AKI.
Proenkephalin predicts acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients.
Shah KS, Taub P, Patel M, Rehfeldt M, Struck J, Clopton P, Mehta RL, Maisel AS.
Clin Nephrol. 2015. 83(1): 29-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN108387
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). Plasma levels of proenkephalin were significantly elevated in patients developing AKI and increased faster than creatinine in such patients following surgery.
Proenkephalin and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction.
Ng LL, Sandhu JK, Narayan H, Quinn PA, Squire IB, Davies JE, Bergmann A, Maisel A, Jones DJ.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014. 63(3): 280-9. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.037
Plasma proenkephalin was measured in 1,141 patients with myocardial infarction. Increased levels were associated with major adverse cardiac events and death. Kidney function (eGFR) was shown to be by far the strongest independent determinant of proenkephalin.
Proenkephalin A 119-159, a stable proenkephalin precursor fragment identified in human circulation.
Ernst A, Köhrle J, Bergmann A.
Peptides. 2006. 27(7):1835-40. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2006.03.008
A stable fragment of Proenkephalin (PENK or pro-ENK) has been identified as suitable surrogate marker for the unstable enkephalin peptides.
Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues.
Denning GM, Ackermann LW, Barna TJ, Armstrong JG, Stoll LL, Weintraub NL, Dickson EW.
Peptides. 2008. 29(1):83-92. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2007.11.004
Tissue-specific expression of enkephalin and enkephalin receptors was assessed by several methods in various species. Widespread expression was observed and the kidney was found to be one of the major expression sites.