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Medical Utility

  1. Prediction of breast cancer risk

sphingotest® penKid Immunoassay

  • Measures a stable mid-regional fragment of Proenkephalin (pro-ENK) as surrogate for the unstable Enkephalin
  • The sphingotest® pro-NT/pro-ENK Broschure can be downloaded here.

Literature

  1. Ernst A, Köhrle J, Bergmann A. Proenkephalin A 119-159, a stable proenkephalin A precursor fragment identified in human circulation. Peptides. 2006; 27(7):1835-40. PubMed PMID: 16621157.
  2. Li W, Chen W, Herberman RB, Plotnikoff NP, Youkilis G, Griffin N, Wang E, Lu C, Shan F. Immunotherapy of cancer via mediation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by methionine enkephalin (MENK). Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(2):212-22. PubMed PMID: 24291668.
  3. Li X, Meng Y, Plotnikoff NP, Youkilis G, Griffin N, Wang E, Lu C, Shan F. Methionine enkephalin (MENK) inhibits tumor growth through regulating CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice. Cancer Biol Ther. 2015;16(3):450-9. PubMed PMID: 25701137
  4. Melander O, Orho-Melander M, Manjer J, Svensson T, Almgren P, Nilsson PM, Engström G, Hedblad B, Borgquist S, Hartmann O, Struck J, Bergmann A, Belting M. Stable Peptide of the Endogenous Opioid Enkephalin Precursor and Breast Cancer Risk. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug 20;33(24):2632-8. PubMed PMID: 26169618.